A solar panel is generally made up of three strings, with either 16 or 24 solar cells arranged in series. A special bypass diodebypass diode
When the solar cell is partially or completely shaded - e.g. by a chimney -, less power will flow through the modules. Switching in sequence in the module heats up the shaded cell and may destroy it (hot-spot effect). Bypass diodes protect shaded cells. A solar module has one to three bypass diodes, depending on cell number.
secures each individual string, preventing a drop in output in the event of shade.
High yields are possible if the solar panels are arranged optimally and used in combination with high-quality solar plant components.
The quality of the panels is determined by a number of factors:
- High percentage rating: The panel efficiencyefficiency
The efficiencies achieved with solar cells in photovoltaics range from a few percent (e.g. about 6 percent for cadmium-telluride solar modules) up to more than 35 percent (concentrator multi-layer lab version) or 40 percent (CIS-based thin-film module). The efficiencies of common solar modules on the market are between 6 percent (silicon-based thin-film modules) and 20 percent (monocrystalline modules).
rating gives the amount of sunlight that can be utilised technically as a percentage of all of the incoming sunlight.
- Temperature measurement: The output of the panel is dependent on its temperature. A value of -0.5% is tolerated per degree Celsius. The closer this value is to zero, the better.
- Peak output: The panel’s nominal output is given in watt-peak. It describes the output achieved under standard test conditionsstandard test conditions
To determine the rated output of a PV module, standardised conditions must be complied with in the lab. This includes: Irradiation power (global irradiation) of 1000W/m² at precisely vertical incidence of light, a cell temperature of 25° C, irradiation range according to AM (air mass) 1.5. When the sun is at the zenith at the equator, the irradiation range is AM 1.0. An AM of 1.5 is assumed to be the annual average for Europe.
. This value can be used to find the optimum plant set-up.
- Tolerance levels: The manufacturer provides a set tolerance for how far the nominal value is allowed to differ from the actual output. Differences of (+/-) per cent are in the normal range.
- Test mark: All products are tested by independent institutes such as TÜV Rheinland. The test mark proves that the panels are fit to withstand the whole range of possible weather conditions.
- Operational readiness: The guaranteed service life for the solar panels is between 10 and 25 years. The actual service life generally exceeds this amount.
Poly- or monocrystallinemonocrystalline
The efficiency of monocrystalline solar cells is at 14-20 %. They can be recognised by their dark grey colour. Material pieces that consist of a single crystal throughout and therefore have a regular crystal alignment are called monocrystalline (e.g. a silicon block).
cells: these solar panels achieve higher yields and are more efficient. Whether you have decided on autonomous power supply or grid feed-in, the panels are the most important part of a photovoltaicphotovoltaic
The term photovoltaic (PV) is made up of photon (Greek for light) and the name of physicist Alessandro Volta (Volt). Photovoltaic (solar power) is the direct conversion of light power into electrical power or generation of power from sunlight. Light power (photons) hit the silicon crystal grid of a doped semi-conductor, releasing charge carriers that can be used for power generation.
plant and must therefore meet the strictest quality requirements. Our panels are flexible and are available in various sizes; we can offer you an optimum panel solution that meets your specific requirements.